Design Activity — an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Design Activity - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics Реферат

Keep it simple

You’ve probably heard of the design philosophy, KISS – keep it simple, stupid. This applies to every type of design, including a presentation design. You might be sharing important, complex information, but there’s no need to complicate the look of your design.

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Simple slides are more likely to be read and understood. This simplicity extends to everything in the content and presentation design. Here are some tips to following through:

  • Create a unified message or theme that carries throughout the presentation.
  • Skip transitions, sounds, or animations that clutter the screen (and the audience’s attention).
  • Create action-based messaging that encourages interaction.
  • Stick to a single visual theme for visual consistency.

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Be consistent in the design

It’s important to pull all of these tips together into a design that’s consistent from slide to slide. The image style, color choices, typography palette, and placement of elements (such as your logo) should follow a set of guidelines for the project.

Don’t forget the call to action

Leave your audience with something to do after the presentation ends by including a call to action (CTA) in your slide deck.

For presentation decks with multiple slides, include a call to action every 10 slides or so. For individual slide presentations — such as one shared on social-media — include a call to action every single time.

A call to action can include a link, phone number, or email form. It should include a simple bit of text that tells the audience to do something. For example:

  • Download the e-book.
  • Find out more.
  • Connect with me/us on social.

Get started on your presentation

Creating a knock-their-socks-off presentation design doesn’t have to be a daunting task. You are now armed with plenty of tips for creating something that the audience will engage with. You just have to get started.

That’s where the Shutterstock Editor comes in. There’s no expensive software to buy, and you can create presentations that wow in just a few minutes. Plus, every design will have that custom flair that makes a lasting impression. Get started today.

Top image by g-stockstudio

Go beyond a default theme

There’s so much more than the default presentation themes in programs such as PowerPoint. People have seen these themes in presentations so many times that they will not leave a lasting impression.

A more custom design will make much more of a statement — it’s something that the audience is more likely to remember. And you don’t have to be a professional designer to do it. There are great tools out there that allow you to create custom presentations or single slides for online and social media sharing in a matter of minutes.

Shutterstock Editor is an ideal starting point, and it comes with plenty of templates with personalization options to help you create something that the audience will remember long after the presentation ends.

Edit this template with Shutterstock Editor.

Limit text and bullet points

While we’re looking at text, one of the biggest presentation design problems is too much text. Think of each slide as a headline. What’s the most important point you will try to make while the slide is on the screen? Make that point. Period.

Text should be large (there might be people sitting far away from the screen), and it shouldn’t be in sentence format, in most instances. And stay away from the biggest mistake of all: Bullet overload. A slide full of bullet points just isn’t useful.

One slide, one thought

Whether your presentation is 20 slides or just an individual frame, each single screen should only contain one idea.

Let that sink in for a minute.

Opt for simple typefaces

The typeface you use is almost as important as the words on the screen. You need to select something that’s highly readable.

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Look for a typeface that:

  • Is sans-serif (or a simple serif) – these are easier to read on screens.
  • Has a uniform stroke width.
  • Is a regular or bold style (stay away from thin or italic typefaces).
  • Matches the tone of the presentation.
  • Can be used at different sizes with ease.

The common objection to using a typeface that meets the conditions above is that it’s “boring.” That’s just not so. Some of the most-loved typefaces in the design community fit these criteria. Think of them as reliable and readable.

Popular sans-serif font options include Helvetica, Futura, and Proxima Nova.

ShutterstockEditor gives you access to Google Fonts, full of professional typefaces to use in your presentation design.

Using more standard typefaces can ensure that the presentation design is clean and professional. And if you want to go for a little typographic spark, consider using size variations and bold fonts for emphasis.

Pay attention to contrast

Contrast separates elements so that there’s a clear focal point on each slide in the presentation design. Create contrast with elements that have different sizes or colors. Every slide should include a spot that the audience should look at first, then a secondary place before they take in the entire visual. This happens in mere seconds, which is why contrast — which aids readability — is so important.

Presentations and explanations — ppt download


QUESTION Can you recall a particular
teacher presentation or explanationthat helped you to understandsome aspect of the languageyou were learning? How did it help?

One of the T‘s jobs → mediate something new (a text, a new word, how to perform a task) in a form that is most accessible for initial learning.This kind of mediation may be called ´presentation´

PRESENTATIONKind of limited and controlled modelling of a target item that we do when we introduce a new word or grammatical structure.Initial encounter with comprehensible input in the form of spoken or written texts.Various kinds of explanations, instructions and discussion of new language items or tasks.

It can help to activate and harness Ls‘ attention, effort, intelligence and conscious (´metacognitive´) learning strategies in order to enhance learning.E.g. Point out how a new item is linked to sth. your students already know, or contrast the new piece of grammar with a parallel structure in their own language.This does not mean that every single new piece of language – every sound, word, structure, text, etc. – needs to be consciously introduced; or that every new unit in the syllabus has to start with a clearly directed presentation.

Presentations may not occur at the first stage of learning.
They may be given after Ls have already engaged with the langauge in question, e. g. through discussion.

1. AttentionLs are alert and focussed on T and thematerial they should learn; make sure Ls are infact attending2. PerceptionLs see/hear the target material clearly; T repeats it inorder to give added opportunities for perception; it ishelpful to get some response from Ls so that T knows Lshave perceived the material accurately – repetition,writing

Ls understand the meaning of the material
3. UnderstandingLs understand the meaning of the materialintroduced, and its connection with the otherthings they already know – T illustrates, makeslinks with previously learnt material, explains,etc.; a response – valuable feedback – arestatement of concepts in Ss´ own words

more colourful, dramatic, and unusual
4. Short-term memoryLs need to take the material into short-term memory (to remember it until laterin the lesson to consolidate learning); themore colourful, dramatic, and unusualthe presentation, the better!; after a longexplanation, finish with a briefrestatement of the main points

Consider and discuss these:What was the aim of the presentation?How successful do you think it was, or would be, in getting students to attend to, percieve, understand and remember the target material?How appropriate and effective would a similar procedure be for you, in your teaching situation (or in a teaching situation you are familiar with)?

When introducing new material  give explicit descriptions or definitions of concepts or processes.One particular kind of explanation is INSTRUCTION: the directions that are given to introduce a learning task which entails some measure of independent student activity.

Guidelines on giving effective explanations and instructions

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PREPARET‘s explanations are often not as clear to Ss as they are to the TsMAKE SURE YOU HAVE THE CLASS‘S FULL ATTENTIONWhen explaining something essential, your Ss must attend.E.G. give instructions BEFORE you divide the class into groups or give out materials, not after! and if they have written or pictorial material in their hands, they will be tempted to look at it, which they may also find distractive.

A repetition or paraphrase of the necessary information may make all the differenceLs‘ attention wanders quite often, and it is important to give them more than one chance to understand what they have to doBE BRIEFWe have only a limited attention span.Make your explanation as brief as you can, compatible with clarity.Think carefully about what you can, or should, omit, as much as about what you should include!

Explain, e.g. the meaning of a word, illustrating your explanation with examples of its use in various contexts, relating these as far as possible to the Ls‘ own lives and experiencesGET FEEDBACKIt is not enough just to ask ´DO YOU UNDERSTAND?´It is better to ask them to do something that will show their understanding: to paraphrase in their own words, or provide further illustrations of their own.

PEER-TEACHING Choose a topic or item of information.
Prepare a presentation of not more than five minutes, and then give it.For each presentation, discuss what was effective about it, using the criteria suggested previously.

Choose an activity and prepare instructions on how to do it. The activitymay be: a game which you know how to play but others do not; aprocess (how to prepare a dish, how to mend or build something); or aclassroom procedure.Stage 2: DiscussionLook at the guidelines on giving effective explanations and think aboutor discuss them in relation to the actual intructions given in stage 1.In what ways did the instructions agree with ordiffer from the guidelines?Can you think of ways in which these instructionscould have been made more effective?

Quality indicators

Main quality elements:  relevance, interpretability, accuracy, accessibility

An analytical product is relevant if there is an audience who is (or will be) interested in the results of the study.

For the interpretability of an analytical article to be high, the style of writing must suit the intended audience. As well, sufficient details must be provided that another person, if allowed access to the data, could replicate the results.

For an analytical product to be accurate, appropriate methods and tools need to be used to produce the results.

For an analytical product to be accessible, it must be available to people for whom the research results would be useful.


Binder, D.A. and G.R. Roberts. 2003. «Design-based methods for estimating model parameters.»  In Analysis of Survey Data. R.L. Chambers and C.J. Skinner (eds.) Chichester. Wiley. p. 29-48.

Binder, D.A. and G. Roberts. 2009. «Design and Model Based Inference for Model Parameters.» In Handbook of Statistics 29B: Sample Surveys: Inference and Analysis. Pfeffermann, D. and Rao, C.R. (eds.) Vol. 29B. Chapter 24. Amsterdam.Elsevier. 666 p.

Chambers, R.L. and C.J. Skinner (eds.) 2003. Analysis of Survey Data. Chichester. Wiley. 398 p.

Korn, E.L. and B.I. Graubard. 1999. Analysis of Health Surveys. New York. Wiley. 408 p.

Lehtonen, R. and E.J. Pahkinen. 2004. Practical Methods for Design and Analysis of Complex Surveys.Second edition. Chichester. Wiley.

Lohr, S.L. 1999. Sampling: Design and Analysis. Duxbury Press. 512 p.

Skinner, C.K., D.Holt and T.M.F. Smith. 1989. Analysis of Complex Surveys. Chichester. Wiley. 328 p.

Thompson, M.E. 1997. Theory of Sample Surveys. London. Chapman and Hall. 312 p.

Statistics Canada. 2003. «Policy on the Review of Information Products.» Statistics Canada Policy Manual. Section 2.5. Last updated March 4, 2009.

Statistics Canada. 2004. Style Guide.  Last updated October 6, 2004.

Statistics Canada. 2008. Guidelines on Writing Analytical Articles. Last updated September 16, 2008.

Scope and purpose

Data analysis is the process of developing answers to questions through the examination and interpretation of data.  The basic steps in the analytic process consist of identifying issues, determining the availability of suitable data, deciding on which methods are appropriate for answering the questions of interest, applying the methods and evaluating, summarizing and communicating the results. 

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Analytical results underscore the usefulness of data sources by shedding light on relevant issues. Some Statistics Canada programs depend on analytical output as a major data product because, for confidentiality reasons, it is not possible to release the microdata to the public.

Stick to a single image

Each slide should contain one high-quality visual.

Don’t try to cheat, either. A background, photo, illustration or chart all count as an image when it comes to creating your presentation. Anything more and you’ll be overloading the audience with visual information that they can’t process effectively.

Quality imagery will sell your presentation design. Opt for images that showcase your messaging in a high-resolution format. Tiny, pixelated images look unprofessional.

Consider high-quality stock photography when you’re building out a presentation. Good stock photography doesn’t look silly or clichéd, and will help you make a visual statement.

Suitable data

  • Ensure that the data are appropriate for the analysis to be carried out.  This requires investigation of a wide range of details such as whether the target population of the data source is sufficiently related to the target population of the analysis, whether the source variables and their concepts and definitions are relevant to the study, whether the longitudinal or cross-sectional nature of the data source is appropriate for the analysis, whether the sample size in the study domain is sufficient to obtain meaningful results and whether the quality of the data, as outlined in the survey documentation or assessed through analysis is sufficient.

  •  If more than one data source is being used for the analysis, investigate whether the sources are consistent and how they may be appropriately integrated into the analysis.

Two colors are enough

Every good presentation design has a color palette. Excluding black or white, the palette probably does not need more than two colors. Copy is typically rendered in black for readability, but you can apply the color scheme to the background, headlines, and smaller accents like bullet points.

Start with your dominant brand colors when picking a presentation design palette. If your brand uses a colorless scheme such as a white logo, pick a pair of colors that match the tone of the message.

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If you plan to go heavy on images, color accents and text become less important. If you aren’t using a lot of imagery, a good color palette can add visual impact. Choose a color that’s bright and engaging, and which is dark (or light) enough so that the text can be seen.

Usable, useful, and desirable

Many practitioners engaged in human-centered design activities have adopted the platitude that designed products should be “usable, useful, and desirable”. Liz Sanders, former Vice President at Fitch Richardson-Smith, coined this phrase in an effort to illustrate the necessity of converging perspectives in research.

22 The three terms are closely linked, but each implies a quite separate facet of design. While many reference these three traits as goals of design activities, it is rare to find a product that fulfills two of the three characteristics; a product that touches all three is a rare gem of design.

Interpretation of results

  • Since most analyses are based on observational studies rather than on the results of a controlled experiment, avoid drawing conclusions concerning causality.

  • When studying changes over time, beware of focusing on short-term trends without inspecting them in light of medium-and long-term trends. Frequently, short-term trends are merely minor fluctuations around a more important medium- and/or long-term trend.

  • Where possible, avoid arbitrary time reference points. Instead, use meaningful points of reference, such as the last major turning point for economic data, generation-to-generation differences for demographic statistics, and legislative changes for social statistics.

Initial preparation

  • Prior to conducting an analytical study the following questions should be addressed:

    • Objectives. What are the objectives of this analysis? What issue am I addressing? What question(s) will I answer?

    • Justification. Why is this issue interesting?  How will these answers contribute to existing knowledge? How is this study relevant?

    • Data. What data am I using? Why it is the best source for this analysis? Are there any limitations?

    • Analytical methods. What statistical techniques are appropriate? Will they satisfy the objectives?

    • Audience. Who is interested in this issue and why?

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